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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation, particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group’s homeland.

i) Formation of political parties.
ii) Formation of unions and associations that can protect the interest of members of the public.
iii) Support for the government through constructive criticism.
iv) Establishment of human right protection groups.
v) Provision of valuable ideas and information for
the government.
vi) Provision of legal aids for poor citizens who cannot afford the services of lawyers.



i) Paracetamol
This drug is definitely a household name. It comes in different popular brand names such as panadol, boska and M&B. Due to its analgesic, antipyretic and anti-
inflammatory properties, paracetamol is widely used – and
frequently abused – for the treatment of fever, headache
as well as mild to moderate body aches. Although it is relatively safe especially when compared with most other pain killers, it is not without adverse effects mostly when
consumed in excess. Evidently, the most dreaded adverse
effect is hepatotoxicity (liver damage) and this may occur after the maximum recommended dose of 4g (8 tablets) is exceeded per day.

ii) Aspirin
This is another widely abused drug in Nigeria. Popular
brands include Alabukun and Phensic. Aspirin belongs to the group of drugs called Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs) which are often employed in the
treatment of severe headaches (such as migraine),
dysmenorrhoea (menstrual pain), rheumatoid arthritis,
osteoarthritis and many other causes of pain. Other
NSAIDs include ibuprofen, diclofenac, piroxicam
(feldene), indometacin and so on. They act by inhibiting
cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that normally protect the
epithelial lining of the stomach from acid secretion.

iii) *Codeine*
Codeine is an opioid analgesic also used in the management of pain and diarrhoea. Like other opioids, it
is widely abused because of its potential to produce
euphoria (high mood) when consumed in large quantities.
Hence, codeine abusers consume large quantities of
codeine-containing cough syrups which ultimately leads to
adverse effects like dependence, tolerance, sedation, euphoria, vomiting, etc.

iv) Antibiotics
Antibiotics such as tetracycline, metronidazole (flagyl)
and ciprofloxacin (ciprotab) are equally victims of
widespread abuse. For instance, ciprofloxacin is a
fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity variously used in the treatment of gastroenteritis (such
as cholera and dysentery), typhoid, sexually transmitted
infections (such as gonorrhoea and chancroid), skin
infections as well as urinary tract infections. However,
it’s not without adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting,
abdominal pain, headache, dizziness and rashes.

v) *Sedatives/Hypnotics*
These refer to drugs commonly used in the treatment of
sleep and anxiety disorders. Some of the common
examples are diazepam (valium), bromazepam (lexotan)
and lorazepam. Unfortunately, a lot of people with sleep
difficulties have become dependent on sleeping pills such
that they can hardly sleep without them. However,
prolonged use of these medications is not without adverse
effects such as respiratory depression, confusion,
tolerance, dependence, visual disturbances, reduced libido
(sexual drive) and headache.

i) Someone who has a prescription for pain or anxiety medication, and they take a different amount than what is prescribed by their doctor.  For example, taking 2 pills instead of just 1 or taking twice the daily amount in a single day.

ii) Someone who does not have a prescription for a drug at all, but is using it anyway, bought off the street or received from a friend or a family member.

iii) Someone who is not old enough to use the drug alcohol, but is using it anyway.

iv) Someone who is combining the use of different drugs when they should not be, such as drinking alcohol while taking prescription medications in spite of a warning label regarding this.

v) People who are taking drugs and engaging in activities that are not advisable, such as someone who takes heavy medication and then is driving a car, again…against the warning labels.


i) Changes in personality and behavior like a lack of motivation, irritability, and agitation.
ii) Bloodshot eyes and frequent bloody noses.
iii) Shakes, tremors, or slurred speech.
iv) Change in their daily routines.
v) Lack of concern for personal hygiene.
vi) Unusual need for money; financial problems.

Choose any six (6)
i) Establishment of drug control agencies e.g.
National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), National Agency for Food and Drug
Administration and
Control (NAFDAC) and Non Governmental
Organizations (NGOs).
ii) Access to hard drugs should be controlled by those
in authority.
iii) Proper family upbringing should be encouraged so as
to curtail undue influence on children.
iv) Youths should be taught moral and religious principles.
v) Youths should be encouraged to resist negative peer pressure.
vi) Good knowledge of drugs by individuals and the public should be encouraged.
vii) Stiff penalty should be applied for drug related offences.
viii) There should be effective counseling services for youths on drug related matters.
ix) Life coping skills should be provided for youths to enable them deal with challenges.
x) Media campaign against drug abuse should be intensified.
xi) Exemplary lifestyles by parents/guardians and other adults should be encouraged.
xii) Selected and recognised outlets for the sale of drugs should be controlled.



i) Administrative Class:

This comprises of the most senior civil servants who organize and coordinate the activities of the ministries. They execute high-level administrative work, advice ministers in formulation and implementation of policies and serve as communication link between the minister and other civil servants.

Recruitment to this class is based on university education and very competitive written examinations and interviews conducted by the civil service commission. In this class are directors-general, other directors, deputy directors, assistant directors, etc.

ii) *Executive Class:*

The executive class implements the general policies and programmes of the government on a daily basis. They supervise and control the activities of their subordinates and help to collect facts that aid in making policy decisions.

This class comprises of executive officers, senior executive officers and senior technical officers who are recruited after possessing professional diplomas and certificates as well as G.C.E. A-Level or its equivalent.

iii) *The Professional Class:*

This class of officers are recruited as a result of their specialized training, skills, scientific and technical knowledge. The professional class includes lawyers, medical doctors, engineers, architects, accountants and teachers.

They offer professional advice on the technical policies of the government and supervise sensitive projects undertaken by the government. Recruitment into this class is based on professional or university education.

Also read  Merits and Demerits of Presidential System Of Government

iv) *The Clerical Class: *

This class of workers include typists, clerical officers, clerical assistants and secretaries who help staff in the other classes to carry out their functions. Their job involves keeping records, movement of files, preparation of data and vouchers and payment of claims. They are holders of secondary school certificates and G.C.E O-Level or equivalent professional certificates e.g.  in typing.

v) *The Auxiliary Class:*

The categories of workers in this class include cleaners, drivers, painters, messengers, porters and gardeners. This work involves manual labour, while the qualification for entry is the first leaving school certificate.

The Civil service reforms of 1988 introduced some modifications to the traditional structure of the service, which include the following:

1) It abolished the post of permanent secretary and replaced it with that of director-general who was a political appointee.

2) The distinction between the executive and administrative classes was removed.

3) Civil servants were to serve in the ministries for which they were primarily qualified.

4) The minister was the chief executive and accounting officer of his ministry.


Constitutional Democracy is the democracy that the authority of the majority is limited by legal and institutional means so that the rights of individuals and minorities are respected.

a) Popular Sovereignty:The people are the ultimate source of the authority of the government which derives its right to govern from their consent.

b) Majority Rule And Minority Rights:*Although “the majority rules,” the fundamental rights of individuals in the minority are protected.

c) Limited Government: The powers of government are limited by law and a written or unwritten constitution which those in power obey.

d) Separated And Shared Powers: Powers are separated among different agencies or branches of government. Each agency or branch has primary responsibility for certain functions such as legislative, executive, and judicial functions. However, each branch also shares these functions with the other branches.

e) Checks And Balances:* Different agencies or branches of government have adequate power to check the powers of other branches. Checks and balances may include the power of judicial review the power of courts to declare actions of other branches of government to be contrary to the constitution and therefore null and void.

f) Due Process Of Law:* Individual rights to life, liberty, and property are protected by the guarantee of due process of law.

g) Leadership Succession Through Elections:* Elections insure that key positions in government will be contested at periodic intervals and that the transfer of governmental authority is accomplished in a peaceful and orderly process.









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